Author Archives: J

Bibliography: Fake News (page 3 of 3)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the Fugazi News website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Wayne Parker, Barbara Burman, Chronicle of Higher Education, Will Colglazier, Washington General Accounting Office, A. Gnanam, Leslie Rakestraw, ALLAN R. STARRY, and Antony Stella.

Stella, Antony; Gnanam, A. (2004). Quality Assurance in Distance Education: The Challenges to Be Addressed, Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning. Integration of technology in all forms of education has narrowed down the gap between the on- and off-campus students and has resulted in the use of the more broad-based term "distributed learning". Consequently, distance learning is seen as a subset of distributed learning, focusing on students who may be separated in time and space from their peers and the instructor. The new forms and meanings it is acquiring, its convergence with traditional learning and its global impact pose several challenges. It has caused a serious concern to the governments and the quality assurance agencies all over the world about the safety of the national systems, legitimacy of the providers, protecting the public from fake providers, quality of the offerings etc. the common element being "concern for quality". Many quality assurance agencies have responded to this need and there is considerable dialogue about ensuring quality in distance education. Some think that quality assurance practices for distance education are essentially the same as those used for traditional education. Others argue that distance education tests conventional assumptions and hence the present mechanisms of quality assurance are not adequate to ensure the quality of distance education. This paper highlights the aspects of distance education that deviate so markedly from what has been practiced for hundreds of years and argues that quality assurance of distance education has to be approached differently. [More] Descriptors: Quality Control, Distance Education, Technology Integration, Educational Technology

Colglazier, Will (). Real Teaching in an Era of Fake News, American Educator. Against the backdrop of our country's current political climate, the author sometimes wonder if he is doing his job as a high school history teacher to the best of his ability. He doesn't see his role as simply covering what's in the textbook or helping students analyze current events. Rather, he believes it's his professional responsibility–his civic duty– to teach students the democratic ideals necessary for an enlightened citizenry. By helping them learn to make a valid claim, marshal evidence in support of it, and critique others' views, he is imparting to students some of the real-world knowledge and skills they will need to succeed not only in college and in career but also in an increasingly uncertain world. [More] Descriptors: Current Events, History Instruction, Secondary School Curriculum, Teaching Methods

Chronicle of Higher Education (2004). Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 50, Number 18, January 9, 2004. "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This January 9, 2004 issue of "Chronicle of Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "Regional Accreditors Penalize 13 Institutions in New England and the South" (Burton Bollag); (2) "Strong Medicine for Doctors: 'Just Say No' to Gifts from Drug Reps, a Columbia U. Physician Urges His Colleagues" (Katherine S. Mangan); (3) "Some States See the Beginning of an Upturn: As Legislatures Convene, Prospects for Higher Education Are Slightly Better after Two Bad Years" (Sara Hebel, Arnone Michael, and Peter Schmidt); (4) "No Mark of Distinction: Some Publishers and Scholars Want to Purge the Colon from Book Titles; the Only Thing That's Worse–Semicolons" (Jennifer Jacobson); (5) "The Cold, Cold War: Geologists Heatedly Debate Whether the Earth Ever Froze over Completely" (Richard Monastersky); (6) "Berkeley Denies Tenure to Ecologist Who Criticized University's Ties to the Biotechnology Industry" (Sharon Walsh); (7) "A New Engineering Curriculum Tries to Make Magic: The Jobs Are out There for Entertainment Designers, but the New Major Faces Some Long Odds" (Michael Arnone); (8) "Court Slows Efforts to Stop Illegal Sharing of Music: Ruling Is Likely to Stem Flow of Subpoenas to Colleges" (Andrea L. Foster); (9) "A Galling Interview: You Can Really Tell a Lot about Your Future Colleagues when You Collapse in Front of a Search Committee" (Lisa Ann Gosed); (10) "Real Meetings: Here's How to Tell the Difference between a Fake Meeting, and a Real One" (Stanley Fish); (11) "No Respect: When Students Are Disrespectful, It Is Usually Because They Feel Disrespected by the Teacher" (Thomas H. Benton); (12) "College Football Could Have a Real Champion" (Charles E. Young); (13) "Educating Parents about College Life" (Helen E. Johnson); (14) "Make Way for Genes and Ducklings" (Marlene Zuk); (15) "Making a Place for Henry Miller in the American Classroom" (Karl Orend); (16) "Teachers' Pets" (Mikita Brottman); (17) "Tea, TV, and Sympathy" (Martha Ann Overland); (18) "Canada's Billion-Dollar Controversy: A Major Attempt to Attract Research Stars Has Netted Few Women, Leading to Charges of Bias" (Karen Birchard); and (19) "Colleges Are Urged to Shift Their Accounting Practices in the Post-Enron Era" (Julianne Basinger). [More] Descriptors: Accreditation (Institutions), State Legislation, Physicians, Publishing Industry

Parker, Wayne (1991). The Detection of the Fake Good Response Set on the MMPI-2. Patterns of responses to the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) that typify deliberate deception of others (faking good) were studied using 100 undergraduates at the University of Alabama (Tuscaloosa) who were given extra course credit for participation in the study. Females constituted 73% of the final subject pool. Each subject was given the MMPI-2 test booklet and two sets of answer sheets. Subjects were asked to complete the MMPI-2 anonymously, first trying to impress a potential employer, and then answering honestly with first reactions. Discriminant analysis and regression identified 83% of the normal MMPI-2 answers and 78% of fake good response sheets. Chi square and additional analyses resulted in a new scale that identified 89% of normal responses and 90% of fake good responses. Gender was not found to be a significant variable. Cross-validation with an additional 66 subjects confirmed these results. The study demonstrates a new method of assessing a deliberate fake good response set. Two tables of study findings and a 12-item list of references are included. Descriptors: Chi Square, Discriminant Analysis, Higher Education, Personality Measures

Burman, Barbara; Rakestraw, Leslie (1982). The Don't Panic Book: What to Expect in an Encounter with the Police and the Juvenile Justice System in New Mexico. The rights of youth in New Mexico if they are arrested and accused of an illegal act are described. Emphasis is on situations they may encounter, what choices they have, and what they can do to help themselves. Although written specifically for youth in New Mexico, the book can easily be used or adapted for use with youth in other states. Situations include: possession of marijuana, shoplifting, joyriding, possession of alcohol, drag racing, using fake identification, glue and solvent sniffing, taking someone else's property, curfew violation, driving without a license, a family fight, vandalism, a fight, a border search, a bad joke, a bad cop, burglary, and a summary of the juvenile system. A list of agencies in New Mexico that might be willing to answer questions and give information is included. Descriptors: Adolescents, Alcohol Education, Alcoholic Beverages, Civil Rights

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. (1995). Social Security: New Functional Assessments for Children Raise Eligibility Questions. Report to Congressional Requesters. This report to Congress examines the Social Security Administration's approach to assessing children's impairments through the individualized functional assessment (IFA) process mandated by the Supreme Court in Sullivan v. Zebley. Specifically, the report assesses the IFA's impact on number of Supplemental Security Income recipients, IFA's implementation, and its vulnerability to coaching. Investigators found fundamental flaws in the IFA process, and cited the subjective nature of adjudicators' assessments of children's behavior as a barrier to consistent and reasonable administration of the program, particularly for children with behavioral and learning disorders. Although rapid program growth is seen as leading to a public perception that many parents coach their children to fake mental impairments, little evidence of widespread coaching was found. It is noted, however, that substantiating and measuring allegations of coaching is "virtually impossible." It is suggested that the Congress consider taking action to improve and objectify eligibility determinations, possibly by eliminating the IFA altogether and directing that functional criteria be revised. Appendices describe the study's scope and methodology, efforts to effect implementation of the Supreme Court's decision, and studies previously done. [More] Descriptors: Child Welfare, Children, Clinical Diagnosis, Disabilities


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Bibliography: Fake News (page 2 of 3)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Fugazi News website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Caio V. Soares, Juan E. Gilbert, Josh Fischman, Isabella de Wit, Ian J. Deary, Teresa Ortega, Micael S. George, Ann Fulton, Joel Breakstone, and Sam Wineburg.

Fulton, Ann (2007). The Restoration of an Ilkak'mana: A Chief Called Multnomah, American Indian Quarterly. An ilkak'mana called Multnomah once lived near the river where New England merchants chopped Portland, Oregon, out of a Douglas-fir forest. With a bow and shield slung behind his back, the chief stood imperiously in Hermon A. MacNeil's 1904 statuette inscribed at its base with his name. Nearby tribes preserved Multnomah in words, but years later many Portlanders believed he was a fake because people who were not Natives romanticized, and denied Indigenous history. This article presents the life of Multnomah and his role to the Indigenous history. It also recounts the history of Indigenous tribes in Portland. [More] Descriptors: American Indian Culture, American Indian History, Tribes, Art Products

Miller, Bruce Granville (2012). Life on the Hardened Border, American Indian Culture and Research Journal. The many Coast Salish groups distributed on both sides of the United States-Canada border on the Pacific coast today face significant obstacles to cross the international border, and in some cases are denied passage or intimidated into not attempting to cross. The current situation regarding travel by Aboriginal people reflects the "hardening" of the border by United States officials following the events of "9-11." A bureaucratic environment has become increasingly hostile to the interests of Aboriginal groups in favor of security. In addition, the problems encountered by individual Aboriginal travelers at the border reflect a transformed American impression of Canada, now commonly treated politically and administratively as a state from which enemies of America are positioned to harm American interests. These new perceptions create an environment that enables Homeland Security officers to regard Aboriginal peoples who seek to cross the border as suspect, although they do so under legal conventions that allow passage of Aboriginal peoples. Officers then act on their own received, stereotypical notions of what a "real Indian" looks like, and deny passage to those they consider to be fakes. These border issues reflect a larger pattern of the denial of Aboriginal rights and challenges to tribal sovereignty by the American state and its citizenry. Data for this work comes from interviews with Coast Salish people and the case of a Coast Salish man who was detained and prosecuted for attempting to cross the border. A justice summit held in 2003 provides direct insight into official American approaches to the border as they concern Aboriginal people, while reporting by the Seattle Times reveals local responses to 9-11. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Canada Natives, Barriers, Mobility

McGrew, Sarah; Ortega, Teresa; Breakstone, Joel; Wineburg, Sam (). The Challenge That's Bigger than Fake News: Civic Reasoning in a Social Media Environment, American Educator. Since the November 2016 presidential election, coverage of "fake news" has been everywhere. It's hard to turn on the TV without hearing the term. Google and Facebook have pitched plans for fighting the menace. State legislators have even introduced bills to mandate K-12 instruction on the topic. Fake news is certainly a problem. Sadly, however, it's not our biggest. Fact-checking organizations like Snopes and PolitiFact can help us detect canards invented by enterprising Macedonian teenagers, but the Internet is filled with content that defies labels like "fake" or "real." Determining who's behind information and whether it's worthy of our trust is more complex than a true/false dichotomy. Today's students are more likely to learn about the world through social media than through traditional sources like print newspapers. It's critical that students know how to evaluate the content that flashes on their screens. Unfortunately, research conducted by the Stanford History Education Group demonstrates they don't. In this article, the authors describe three of their assessments. Their findings are troubling. Yet they believe that gauging students' ability to evaluate online content is the first step in figuring out how best to support them. [More] Descriptors: Social Environment, Media Literacy, Barriers, Civics

Observatory on Borderless Higher Education (2010). Degrees of Doubt? Towards Eradicating Fraudulent Cross-Border Institutions and Diplomas. Six higher education institutions in Singapore and four universities in New Zealand have reportedly been placed on a list of unaccredited institutions and so-called "degree mills", which has been compiled by the Office of Degree Authorisation of the state of Oregon in the United States (US). As one of the first US states that introduced legislation against the use of non-authorised and fraudulent degrees, Oregon has adopted strict laws regarding the use of qualifications from unaccredited institutions and those dubbed "degree mills" (substandard or fraudulent colleges that offer potential students degrees with little or no serious work undertaken). Oregon's strict legislation makes its list of unaccredited institutions one of the most comprehensive compiled by a state government body in the US. Why have Singapore and New Zealand, two countries that are generally well-known for their good quality universities, been placed on Oregon's list of "degree mill countries"? With a growing number of fraudulent institutions, how is it possible to identify a "degree mill"? Which actions can be undertaken to counter-act the international presence of fraudulent institutions, low quality colleges and fake degrees? [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, State Government, State Action, State Legislation

George, Micael S., Jr.; Soares, Caio V.; Gilbert, Juan E. (2009). Combating Ethical Issues in University Admissions Using Technology, Journal of Educational Technology. Obtaining diversity among admitted applicants is often a challenging task for most post secondary institutions. As a proposed solution to this challenge, Applications Quest (AQ) was created. AQ addresses the dilemma of how to achieve diversity while still upholding institutional academic standards and objectives while adhering to the law. A steady rise in admission applications, however, has lead to steep competition for admission slots. This in turn, has compelled many students to act less than ethical when completing their applications, often lying to try to gain an unfair advantage. So, this study investigates if applicants could "game" the application process, to their advantage, under AQ. New applicants are provided with information about the current applicant pool and details of how AQ works. They are then instructed to complete a true application, with their factual information, and a fake application, in an attempt to game the system. This study finds that even when provided with the aforementioned information, the null hypothesis that "a student will not be able to increase their chances of being admitted to an institution by lying on their application in an effort to game the system" cannot be rejected, thus furthering the case for the use of AQ in the application selection process. [More] Descriptors: Ethics, College Admission, Student Diversity, College Applicants

Fischman, Josh (2012). Fake Peer Reviews, the Latest Form of Scientific Fraud, Fool Journals, Chronicle of Higher Education. This article reports on how some scientists impersonate outside reviewers for journals and give high marks to their own manuscripts. Scientists appear to have figured out a new way to avoid any bad prepublication reviews that dissuade journals from publishing their articles: Write positive reviews themselves, under other people's names. In incidents involving four scientists–the latest case coming to light two weeks ago–journal editors say authors got to critique their own papers by suggesting reviewers with contact e-mails that actually went to themselves. According to Irene Hames, a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics, Blame lies with those journals that allow authors to nominate their own reviewers and do not check credentials and contacts. [More] Descriptors: Credentials, Ethics, Scientists, Deception

Easley, Dauna (2005). Bright Ideas for Dark Days, Techniques: Connecting Education and Careers. In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or before work in the morning; (6) Practice kindness; (7) Take a class that will reflect on your job in a positive way; (8) Write down good ideas the moment you think of them; (9) Improve your work space; (10) Purge; (11) Record uplifting music; (12) Compliment a co-worker; (13) Set goals that move and inspire you; (14) Create a new bulletin board or display in your classroom; (15) Keep a gratitude journal; (16) Solve a problem; (17) Attend an educational conference; (18) Change your routine; (19) Share your expertise at a teacher conference; and (20) Do not eat lunch with the crab apples! [More] Descriptors: Teachers, Altruism, Teacher Motivation

Ejiogu, Aloy; Onyene, Virgy (2008). Deepening Corporate Integrity in the Nigerian University System, African Higher Education Review. The quest and agitation for the enthronement of corporate integrity in the nation's universities by the stakeholders have become almost hysterical given the often alleged, sometimes proven, cases of mal-administration, fund embezzlement and or misappropriation, over bloated or even fake invoicing, unbridled favoritism, sexual harassment, bribery, and so on, within the system. Tales are told of students not completing their courses before they are put out for examinations in some universities. The situation becomes worrisome and intriguing with the jet-speed rate of opening up of new universities with its attendant alleged employment of "unqualified" staff, retirees, and stragglers from older universities. To ascertain the true feelings and perceptions of stakeholders, regarding these alleged misdemeanors, a questionnaire was designed and distributed at a stakeholders forum organized by the Due Process Office in Owerri, Nigeria between 22nd and 24th June, 2006. Of the 260 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 198 (76.1%) usable copies were returned. On inspection, it was gladdening to note that there was a fair spread of respondents among the six geo-political zones in the country. The respondents almost unanimously scored the nation's university system very low on the corporate integrity index, itself a poor commentary on the "Quality Assurance" and the "Due Process" efforts of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the Due Process Unit in the Presidency, respectively. Suggestions are proffered on how ethical conduct and corporate integrity can be firmly entrenched and internalized as a quality assurance booster within the system. [More] Descriptors: Integrity, Questionnaires, Foreign Countries, Corporations

Dabbagh, Nada; Fake, Helen (2017). College Students' Perceptions of Personal Learning Environments through the Lens of Digital Tools, Processes and Spaces, Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research. A review of the literature reveals there is a gap in the research regarding how students currently perceive PLEs and how they structure their PLEs to support their learning goals. The purpose of this study was to establish an understanding of college students' perceptions of PLEs and what digital tools are currently being used to structure PLEs in order to facilitate personal growth and development. Participants (N = 109) were asked to share their perceptions of PLEs and what digital tools, devices, and services they use to create PLEs. Analysis of blog submissions revealed similarities and differences between the ways that undergraduate and graduate students perceive PLEs and how they characterize these learning spaces. Students reported using a variety of digital tools for learning however their expectations of digital tools were to foster discussion, collaboration, and interaction, organization, planning, and resource management, experiential learning, personalization and a desire for effective technology. The findings of this study have important implications with respect to the competencies and skills needed to create effective PLEs and the affordances of digital technologies needed to support PLE development. [More] Descriptors: College Students, Student Attitudes, Educational Technology, Technology Uses in Education

Jesness, Jerry (2004). After the Whistle, Teacher Magazine. Robert Kimball made national news in February 2003 when he reported to a television station the irregularities of dropout rates in his district. He was then the assistant principal of Sharpstown Senior High School in Houston. Long-troubled schools that typically reported dropout rates of 30 and 40 percent suddenly reported dramatically lower numbers. According to Robert Kimball, these figures were fake and the records were altered. A state investigation of district middle and high schools in 2000-2001 in Texas later determined that the district had underreported dropouts by 2,999 students. This article describes what made Kimball reveal the dropout cover-up and the hard consequences he faced after reporting the irregularities. [More] Descriptors: Dropouts, Assistant Principals, Dropout Rate, School Districts

Taylor, Kelley R. (2010). Split Decisions, Principal Leadership. On February 18, 2010, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit (covering Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, and the Virgin Islands) handed down rulings in two different cases involving regulation of student speech when that speech takes place online and off campus. The rulings–one that favored the school district defendant and the other that favored the student plaintiff–have added to existing confusion over whether schools may legally regulate student speech when such speech takes place online, but off campus. In 2005, using his grandmother's computer during nonschool hours, a high school student created a fake Internet profile of his principal on the social networking site MySpace. The parody, which contained a real photo of the principal, contained answers to profile questions that were written by the student in such a way as to mock the principal. Later that year during an investigation, the student admitted to creating the profile and apologized to school officials both verbally and in a letter. Later, following a hearing, the student was found guilty of an array of infractions. The student received a 10-day suspension from school and was placed in an in-school alternative education program for the remainder of the school year. Consequently, the student's parents filed suit against the school district alleging, among other things, violation of their son's constitutional right to free speech. In ruling in favor of the student ("Layschock v. Hermitage School District, 2010"), the court reasoned that school officials have less authority to regulate speech and expression that takes place off campus than speech that occurs on school grounds. On the same day as the "Layschock" decision, a three-judge panel also in the 3rd Circuit handed down a 2-1 ruling in favor of a school district that had disciplined a student for off-campus, online speech. In the case, "J. S. v. Blue Mountain School District (2010)," a middle school student was suspended from school for 10 days after eventually admitting that she used her home computer to create a phony MySpace profile that was designed to mock her school's principal. The student included a legitimate photograph of the principal on the profile page, accompanied by "profanity-laced statements insinuating that [the principal] was a sex addict and pedophile." The student's parents filed suit, arguing that the school district violated the Constitution when it punished the student for out-of-school conduct that did not cause a disruption of classes. The district court granted summary judgment in favor of the school district. They found that although the student created the profile off campus and her behavior did not cause a substantial and material disruption of the school environment, the school district did not violate the student's First Amendment rights by disciplining the student because of "the facts of the case and because the lewd and vulgar off-campus speech [on the profile] had an effect on-campus." These rulings demonstrate that there is much debate over whether the ability to regulate lewd and profane student speech applies to off-campus speech, and about what type of disruption is significant enough to justify school official's regulation of off-campus student speech. Consequently, school administrators should continue to tread carefully in these matters. [More] Descriptors: School Districts, Court Litigation, School Personnel, Freedom of Speech

Chronicle of Higher Education (2004). Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 50, Number 39, June 4, 2004. "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This June 4, 2004 issue of "Chronicle of Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "What Has Happened to Historical Literacy?" (Rabb, Theodore K.); (2) "Musical Redemption in Hitchcock's 'Rear Window'" (Sullivan, Jack); (3) "Genetic Science and Discrimination" (Murphy, Timothy F.); (4) "Pecked to Death" (Romano, Carlin); (5) "Colleges Must Reconstruct the Unity of Knowledge" (Gregorian, Vartan); (6) "Torture, or 'Good Old American Pornography'?" "(Brison, Susan J.); (7) "Rethinking America's Grand Strategy" (Lieber, Robert J.); (8) "Assistant Directors of the Underclass Unite" (Kahn, Robert M.); (9) "Notes from the Hiring Season" (Midler, Frank); (10) "Haunted by the Past, Part 2: How Should Administrative Search Committees Handle Negative Comments from References?" (Dowdall, Jean); (11) "Breaking up Is Hard to Do" (Bartlett, Thomas); (12) "'Very Very Little Has Been Spent to Rebuild Iraq's Shattered Colleges, Top U.S. Official Says" (Bollag, Burton); (13) "In Mexico, Science Goes Begging" (Lloyd, Marion); (14) "Rice U. Backs Away from Major Changes in Sports" (Suggs, Welch); (15) "Nobody Walks: U. of Colorado President Promises Stricter Oversight, but She Fires No One in Football Recruiting Scandal" (Jacobson, Jennifer; Suggs, Welch); (16) "It's Gettin' Hot in Here" (Farrell, Elizabeth F.); (17) "For-Profit College's Deal with Company that Claims Patent May Set a Precedent" (Carlson, Scott); (18) "New Software Uses Fake Songs to Confound Would-Be Music Traders" (Read, Brock); (19) "If You Like This Student, Click Here" (Kiernan, Vincent); (20) "Penn Does Pomp and Circumstance by Design" (Biemiller, Lawrence); (21) "Money Listens: A Maverick University Trustee Works to Meet the Needs of a Blighted Neighborhood" (Basinger, Julianne); (22) "Colleges Permit Too Many Needy Students to Drop Out, Says Report on Graduation Rates" (Burd, Stephen); (23) "A Jury of Peers" (Blumenstyk, Goldie); (24) "U. of Central Ark. Offers a Home to Prominent Journal of Southern Culture" (Monaghan, Peter); (25) "Reaching for the Ring: Tolkien Scholars Embark on a Quest for Legitimacy in Academe" (Mclemee, Scott); (26) "Pitt's Bitter Battle over Benefits" (Wilson, Robin); (27) "A Golden Production at Syracuse U." (Troop, Don); and (28) "Top Public Universities Said to Lose in Aid Plan" (Field, Kelly). [More] Descriptors: History Instruction, Higher Education, Films, Genetics

Dorman, William A. (1992). Beyond Reason: The Media, Politics, and Public Discourse. Draft. The media have a lot to do with how people think and what people think about. The line between popular culture and news has virtually disappeared, giving rise to what some have labeled "infotainment." At the same time, "fake news" in the form of publicity that promoters provide to media outlets under the guise of legitimate news stories has become more common. If the media immerse people in a sea of images and sensation, can critical thinking survive? In the contemporary culture, the media present information as if everything has equal significance. Furthermore, news outlets present information in disjointed, seemingly unrelated bits. The framing of the news, the context in which the news appears, also bears examination. For instance, news reports tend to present stories about poverty as stories about individuals. The result is that citizens blame individuals for poverty, rather than blaming the system. A final problem involves emphasis. News reports tend to focus on violence, which tends to increase disproportionately public fear of violence. Teachers can promote students' critical thinking by challenging media assumptions, and by demonstrating how the media can trivialize public policy issues. Under these circumstances, American society should be more modest than to assume that the United States is the best informed and, therefore, the most democratic country in the world. [More] Descriptors: Broadcast Journalism, Critical Thinking, Current Events, Higher Education

Scott, Kirsten M.; de Wit, Isabella; Deary, Ian J. (2006). Spotting Books and Countries: New Approaches to Estimating and Conceptualizing Prior Intelligence, Intelligence. We aimed to design alternative estimates of pre-morbid/prior intelligence to the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and the Spot-the-Word (STW) in order to tap non-vocabulary based knowledge stores. The rationale for the development of the new tests was that more cognitively able individuals acquire and retain more "singular facts" from their environment. Such facts appear to include knowing how to pronounce irregular words and knowing whether a letter string is a word. We examine if they also include whether a word string is a book title or whether a line drawing is the outline of a country. In the new Spot-the-Book test, subjects were required to identify the real book from a real book-fake book pair of titles. The Spot-the-Country test involved identifying which of two named countries is shown in a line-drawn outline of its borders. There were 126 participants (75 women and 51 men) with mean age 42.2 years (SD = 16.5) and from a wide range of social and occupational backgrounds. Participants undertook a battery of tests including the NART and STW, two tests of more fluid-type ability (Digit Symbol and Matrix Reasoning from the WAIS-III[UK]), and the two new tests: Spot-the-Book and Spot-the-Country. These new tests had high internal consistencies and were highly correlated with the established measures, suggesting that they have concurrent validity. Spot-the-Book test correlated highly with the NART (r = 0.75, p less than 0.001) and the STW (r = 0.72, p less than 0.001). Spot-the-Country correlated strongly with the NART (r = 0.53, p less than 0.001) and the STW (r = 0.41, p less than 0.001). A principal components analysis suggested that the Spot-the-Book and Spot-the-Country both loaded onto a crystallised-type intelligence factor. The new tests, especially Spot-the-Book, suggest that it might be possible to estimate pre-morbid ability without using vocabulary-based measures. The further work needed to develop these tests is discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of crystallised intelligence. [More] Descriptors: Intelligence Tests, Articulation (Speech), Adults, Socioeconomic Background

Tsvetkova, Milena I. (). The Speed Reading Is in Disrepute: Advantages of Slow Reading for the Information Equilibrium, European Journal of Contemporary Education. The study is dedicated to the impact of the speed and the acceleration on the preservation of the information equilibrium and the ability for critical thinking in the active person. The methods about the fast reading training are subjected to a critical analysis. On the grounds of the theory for the information equilibrium and the philosophy of the slow media, is derived the relation "slow reading–information equilibrium". "Information equilibrium" is defined as "imposed by the information environment for natural and sufficient satisfaction of the individual needs, in the conditions of relative freedom." It is supported the thesis about the rethinking of the positives of the fast reading and the rehabilitation and active promotion of the universal literacy in slow reading. The need of promoting the slow reading in the context of the requirements for urgent mass training on information literacy and for critical thinking at times of misinformation, fake news and post-truth has been empirically drawn and grounded. The author's suggestion is to move to a stratified and subordinate redefinition of the goals of the information and the media literacy. The idea is to develop a standard for "profiled" or "niche" information literacy–for each category of person (age, professional) to be written the relevant "maximum program" that does not exceed the rational and the advisable towards their potential. [More] Descriptors: Speed Reading, Reading Rate, Information Literacy, Critical Thinking

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Bibliography: Fake News (page 1 of 3)

This bibliography is independently curated for the Fugazi News website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Rebecca Jacobsen, K. Megan Hopper, Massimiliano Pastore, Ashley Grantham, Sarah Gretter, Linda Frederiksen, Avner Segall, Benjamin Gleason, Paloma Castro, and Ashley B. Clayton.

Frederiksen, Linda (2017). Fake News, Public Services Quarterly. In a politically and digitally polarized environment, identifying and evaluating fake news is more difficult than ever before. Librarians who have been teaching information and media literacy skills for decades understand the role we can and must play in this environment. [More] Descriptors: Librarians, Information Literacy, Information Skills, News Media

Smith, Maribeth D. (2017). Arming Students against Bad Information, Phi Delta Kappan. In the age of fake news, teachers in every subject area should redouble their efforts to help students distinguish between credible and deceptive sources of information. The author calls attention to a few key resources, including the CRAAP guidelines developed at California State University, Chico, and promoted by the American Library Association. [More] Descriptors: Information Literacy, Information Sources, Evaluation Methods, Accuracy

Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner (2017). Teaching with Evidence, Phi Delta Kappan. In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of evidence depending on whether they were making these assessments in the abstract or in the context of a specific issue. In the abstract, evidence like statistical data ranked high, but when students considered a policy issue, they gave greater weight to anecdote and personal experience. The authors offer several recommendations for teaching good evidence use. [More] Descriptors: Evidence, Social Studies, Secondary School Students, Public Policy

Gretter, Sarah; Yadav, Aman; Gleason, Benjamin (2017). Walking the Line between Reality and Fiction in Online Spaces: Understanding the Effects of Narrative Transportation, Journal of Media Literacy Education. Recent contentions about "fake news" and misinformation online has shed light on the critical need for media literacy at a global scale. Indeed, digital stories are one of the main forms of communication in the 21st century through blogs, videos-sharing websites, forums, or social networks. However, the line between facts and fiction can often become blurry in these online spaces, and being able to distinguish between reality and fantasy can have important consequences in the lives of young Internet users. Using contemporary examples from news stories, fanfiction, advertising, and radicalization, this article outlines the features, affordances, and real-life implications of digital stories. As a result, we provide recommendations for educators to create awareness and empower students about digital storytelling practices. [More] Descriptors: Media Literacy, Electronic Publishing, Social Media, Mass Media Effects

Hobbs, Renee (2017). Teaching and Learning in a Post-Truth World, Educational Leadership. Renee Hobbs, director of the Media Education Lab at the Harrington School of Communication and Media at the University of Rhode Island, cautions us to stop using the term "fake news" with students and be more precise about the types of disinformation prevalent in content today, from hoaxes and satire to clickbait. In this article, she focuses on one of the most challenging types of disinformation–propaganda–and how teachers can use resources such as the Mind Over Matter web site to examine and analyze propaganda with their students. She offers examples of the different ways that people can interpret these messages and looks at how students can discover what their intentions are. [More] Descriptors: Media Literacy, Propaganda, Social Media, Mass Media Effects

Harney, John O. (2017). Real Tweets, Fake News … and More from the NEJHE Beat …, New England Journal of Higher Education. Twitter is the closest thing that New England Higher Education has to a news service. Every New England Journal of Higher Education (NEJHE) item automatically posts to Twitter. But NEJHE also uses Twitter to disseminate relevant stories from outside. Not so much communicating personally, but aggregating interesting news or opinion from elsewhere, sometimes juxtaposed with something the New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) has worked on in the past, sometimes with an original comment but not always. This article presents how New England Higher Education uses Twitter and presents some examples of their tweets. [More] Descriptors: Higher Education, Social Media, Web 2.0 Technologies, Mass Media Use

Davis, Michelle R. (2012). Students Create Fake E-Profiles to Bully Peers, Education Week. Two teenage girls were arrested in Florida and charged with cyberstalking after creating a fake Facebook page impersonating another student and using it to bully her. Students at an Indianapolis high school set up false Twitter accounts for their principal and tweeted offensive comments before the account was shut down. And at a Minnesota middle school, someone created a false Facebook profile for a 6th grader and used it to make violent threats. Students' creation of fake online identities is forcing schools to deal with such behavior, which raises legal as well as school safety concerns. In fact, some behavior in such situations can now be deemed illegal under state cyberbullying laws or even cyber-impersonation and identity-theft laws. Thirty-eight states have bullying laws that include a ban on "electronic harassment" in their provisions, and 14 states have laws that expressly prohibit cyberbullying, according to the Cyberbullying Research Center, which tracks such legislation. Some states, such as New Jersey, also have identity-theft laws that have been used in cases involving fake social-networking profiles, and California, New York, and Texas all have laws against cyber or digital impersonation. While cyberbullying is often just an electronic form of such traditional bullying techniques as spreading rumors and teasing, "online impersonation is one of those new, creative ways to be really hurtful." [More] Descriptors: Bullying, School Safety, Profiles, Peer Relationship

Williams, Melinda; Jones, Sandra C.; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don (2012). Do Australian Adolescent Female Fake Tan (Sunless Tan) Users Practice Better Sun-Protection Behaviours than Non-Users?, Health Education Journal. Objective: To determine differences in sun-protection behaviours, and incidence of sunburn, between Australian adolescent female fake tan users and non-users. Design: Cross sectional survey. Method: 398 adolescent females aged 12 to 18 years participated in a survey at public venues, schools, and online. The main outcome measures were self-reported fake tan usage in the past 12 months, frequency of sunburns and habitual sun-protection behaviours.   Setting: Surveys were completed in New South Wales, Australia. Results: The prevalence of self-reported use of fake tanning products in the past 12 months among Australian adolescent females was 34.5%. Female fake tan users were significantly less likely to report wearing a hat, wearing a shirt with sleeves or wearing pants covering to the knees. There was no difference between fake tan users and non-users in use of sunscreen, seeking shade, wearing sunglasses or avoidance of peak ultraviolet (UV) hours. Logistic regression modelling, when accounting for age, desire for a tan and skin type, revealed fake tan users were more likely to experience frequent sunburns and less likely to wear protective clothing.   Conclusions: Our findings show that fake tan use among Australian female adolescents is associated with decreased sun protection, specifically reduced use of both upper and lower body protective clothing. Fake tan users were significantly more likely to experience repeated sunburns, after controlling for skin type. These findings provide impetus for the development of health education programmes targeting a new sub-group of adolescents with distinct tanning behaviours. [More] Descriptors: Outcome Measures, Health Education, Adolescents, Clothing

Hopper, K. Megan; Huxford, John (2017). Emotion Instruction in Journalism Courses: An Analysis of Introductory News Writing Textbooks, Communication Education. This study explores how introductory news writing textbooks address issues surrounding emotional labor and its consequences, both for journalists and for those they interview. Eighteen of the highest-selling introductory news-writing textbooks were selected for qualitative analysis. Results showed the term and concept of emotional labor–the requirement to suppress, fake, or enhance emotions during professional interaction with others–is addressed neither explicitly nor substantively in these texts. While there are directives for journalists to manipulate their own emotions in order to be successful in their trade, there is little if any clear instruction on how this may be done. There is little acknowledgement of the emotional toll that engaging in the journalism profession can have, or discussion of the resources available to journalists to help manage emotional trauma. Results of this analysis suggest that textbooks need to enhance content in this important area. [More] Descriptors: Emotional Response, Introductory Courses, Trauma, News Reporting

Clayton, Ashley B.; Grantham, Ashley; McGurrin, Daniel P.; Paparella, Paul; Pellegrino, Lauren N. (2015). Winning Is Everything: The Intersection of Academics and Athletics at Prestige University, Journal of Cases in Educational Leadership. For years, football and basketball players at Prestige University were earning college credit for classes that never existed. The students were enrolled in fake courses, known as "ghost classes," with no formal instruction or required meeting times and requiring only a single term paper. Faculty, staff, and administrators were complicit in quietly providing student athletes in revenue-generating sports academic credit for coursework they did not complete. However, the scandal became nationwide news, forcing Prestige to reconsider its key values and mission and placing the integrity of the university's academic and athletics programs in jeopardy. [More] Descriptors: Colleges, College Athletics, Deception, Team Sports

Lombardi, Luigi; Pastore, Massimiliano (2012). Sensitivity of Fit Indices to Fake Perturbation of Ordinal Data: A Sample by Replacement Approach, Multivariate Behavioral Research. In many psychological questionnaires the need to analyze empirical data raises the fundamental problem of possible fake or fraudulent observations in the data. This aspect is particularly relevant for researchers working on sensitive topics such as, for example, risky sexual behaviors and drug addictions. Our contribution presents a new probabilistic approach, called Sample Generation by Replacement (SGR), to address the problem of evaluating the sensitivity of 8 commonly used SEM-based fit indices (Goodness of Fit Index, GFI; Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index, AGFI; Expected Cross Validation Index, ECVI; Standardized Root-Mean-Square Residual Index, SRMR; Root-Mean-Square Error of Approximation, RMSEA; Comparative Fit Index, CFI; Nonnormed Fit Index, NNFI; and Normed Fit Index, NFI) to fake-good ordinal data. We used SGR to perform a simulation study involving 3 different SEM models, 2 sample size conditions, and 2 estimation methods: maximum likelihood (ML) and weighted least squares (WLS). Our results show that the incremental fit indices (CFI, NNFI, and NFI) are clearly more sensitive to fake perturbation than the absolute fit indices (GFI, AGFI, and ECVI). Overall, NFI turned out to be the best and most reliable fit index. We also applied SGR to real behavioral data on (non)compliance in liver transplant patients. [More] Descriptors: Deception, Measures (Individuals), Sampling, Structural Equation Models

Castro, Paloma; Derivry-Plard, Martine (2016). Multifaceted Dimensions of Telecollaboration through English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): Paris-Valladolid Intercultural Telecollaboration Project, Intercultural telecollaboration allows for a radical change in language education. New technologies enable learners of different languages and cultures to practice their intercultural skills. Teachers no longer need to design "fake" role-plays to develop interaction in the target language. Above all, teachers have the possibility to address the cultural and intercultural dimensions of language education. This paper presents the multifaceted dimensions of a telecollaboration project in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) with university students in science from UPMC, Sorbonne-Universities, Paris and university students in education from University of Valladolid, opening further questions on the exploration of intercultural telecollaboration in higher education. [For the complete volume, see ED571330.] [More] Descriptors: Intercultural Communication, English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Second Language Instruction

Megowan-Romanowicz, Colleen (2016). Whiteboarding: A Tool for Moving Classroom Discourse from Answer-Making to Sense-Making, Physics Teacher. In 1998 I had been teaching science for 13 years. I was a good teacher: I had the plaques and certificates to prove it. But often I felt like an impostor (which I have since learned is not unusual–70% of all people feel like a fake at one time or another). While my students could solve problems and ace tests, every June when I sat down to look at their Force Concept Inventory (FCI) results, I was confronted by how little they had actually learned in my physics classes. It was this annual reality check that drove me to pursue my first Modeling Workshop in summer of 1998. For four weeks I was a physics student again–every day, for six to eight hours a day. I (re)learned to think aloud, to "speak physics" and to listen to how I and others (students) spoke physics. That summer changed everything. When I returned to my high school-physics classroom equipped with a new way of teaching in September of 1998, I was excited. I felt like I had the key to the perfect year–I wouldn't be an impostor anymore. [More] Descriptors: Physics, Teaching Methods, Educational Practices, Reflective Teaching

Gauthier, Launa (2016). Redesigning for Student Success: Cultivating Communities of Practice in a Higher Education Classroom, Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. In this paper, I discuss the process of redesigning and teaching a mandatory, academic skill building course for students on academic probation at Mount Saint Vincent University (MSVU) in Atlantic Canada. The rationale for redesigning the course was to offer an alternative curricular framework, including instructional approaches, to course instructors who taught a modular-based curriculum. The original course was designed to focus on improving students' individual self-efficacy and motivation for academic success; however, the social and relational nature of learning was not articulated as an underpinning theory in the curriculum. In the new curriculum, I draw on both Etienne Wenger's (1998) notion of communities of practice as sites for learning and Howe and Strauss' (2000; 2007) work on generational analysis as theoretical frameworks. Furthermore, I incorporate Wenger, McDermott, and Snyder's (2002) design principles for cultivating communities of practice as a framework for translating theory into practice. The initial information that I collected from students, instructors, and a thorough review of the original curriculum led to the main inquiry question: How can a curriculum, centred on building community in the classroom, help students to cultivate meaningful learning experiences that take learning beyond a "fake it 'til you make it" mentality? This question guided the curricular design process and also my experiences teaching the course at MSVU during the Fall semester of 2012. [More] Descriptors: Communities of Practice, Academic Achievement, Higher Education, Teaching Methods

Baratz, Lea; Reingold, Roni; Abuhatzira, Hannah (2011). Bi-Lingual Newspaper as an Expression of a Fake Multicultural Educational Policy in Israel, International Education Studies. The current paper analyzes a unique educational text that may be used to follow the educational policy of the State of Israel towards the community of Jewish immigrants from Ethiopia. The text which was analyzed was a bi-lingual newspaper called "Nugget News" which is published under the sponsorship of the Israeli Ministry of Education, since 1999. The analysis of the articles in the 59 issues of this newspaper was aimed to help us to reveal if there is a beginning of implementation of multicultural educational policy in Israel, or does the journalistic text express an explicit or implicit assimilation policy towards the immigrant community? We discovered that the "Nugget News" newspaper acts according to the ideology of implicit assimilation of Ethiopian immigrant community by the State of Israel. Thus the newspaper is being used as an educational tool for promoting a fake multicultural policy. [More] Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Newspapers, Bilingualism, Multicultural Education

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Bibliography: Propaganda (page 01 of 01)

Al-Ameedi, Riyadh Tariq Kadhim; Khudhier, Zina Abdul Hussein (2015). A Pragmatic Study of Barak Obama's Political Propaganda, Journal of Education and Practice. This study investigates, pragmatically, the language of five electoral political propaganda texts delivered by Barak Obama. It attempts to achieve the following aims: (1) identifying the speech acts used in political propaganda, (2) showing how politicians utilize Grice's maxims and the politeness principle in issuing their propaganda, (3) analyzing the rhetorical devices used in political propaganda. To achieve the aims of this study, it is hypothesized that: (1) The speech acts of statement, assertion, and advice can be used in political propaganda, (2) the cooperative principle and the politeness principle are frequently observed in political propaganda, (3) persuasion, metaphor, repetition, and manipulation are the rhetorical devices used in political propaganda. The following procedures have been followed: (1) reviewing the literature about political propaganda along with some pragmatic notions such as speech acts, the cooperative principle, politeness strategies, and some rhetorical devices such as persuasion, metaphor, repetition, and manipulation that are relevant to the aims of the study, (2) analyzing five electoral political propaganda texts according to a model developed by this study. The findings of the analysis verify the above mentioned hypotheses. A bibliography is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Presidents, Propaganda, Politics, Pragmatics

Valeri, Andy (2014). The Pentagon's Military Analyst Program, Policy Futures in Education. This article provides an investigatory overview of the Pentagon's military analyst program, what it is, how it was implemented, and how it constitutes a form of propaganda. A technical analysis of the program is applied using the theoretical framework of the propaganda model first developed by Noam Chomsky and Edward S. Herman. Definitions and parameters of what constitutes propaganda as outlined by Chomsky and Herman, particularly through their analysis of 'filtering' mass media news through "sourcing", are drawn on in order to determine how various aspects of the program can be qualified as propaganda.   [More]  Descriptors: Propaganda, Public Agencies, Military Service, Investigations

Hobbs, Renee; McGee, Sandra (2014). Teaching about Propaganda: An Examination of the Historical Roots of Media Literacy, Journal of Media Literacy Education. Contemporary propaganda is ubiquitous in our culture today as public relations and marketing efforts have become core dimensions of the contemporary communication system, affecting all forms of personal, social and public expression. To examine the origins of teaching and learning about propaganda, we examine some instructional materials produced in the 1930s by the Institute for Propaganda Analysis (IPA), which popularized an early form of media literacy that promoted critical analysis in responding to propaganda in mass communication, including in radio, film and newspapers. They developed study guides and distributed them widely, popularizing concepts from classical rhetoric and expressing them in an easy-to-remember way. In this paper, we compare the popular list of seven propaganda techniques (with terms like "glittering generalities" and "bandwagon") to a less well-known list, the ABC's of Propaganda Analysis. While the seven propaganda techniques, rooted in ancient rhetoric, have endured as the dominant approach to explore persuasion and propaganda in secondary English education, the ABC's of Propaganda Analysis, with its focus on the practice of personal reflection and life history analysis, anticipates some of the core concepts and instructional practices of media literacy in the 21st century. Following from this insight, we see evidence of the value of "social reflection practices" for exploring propaganda in the context of formal and informal learning. Crowdsourcing may help create increased informational clarity for consumers because ambiguous, incomplete, blurry and biased information actually inspires us to have conversations, share ideas, and listen to each other as a means to find truth.   [More]  Descriptors: Propaganda, Media Literacy, Teaching Methods, Public Relations

Stivers, Richard (2012). The Media Creates Us in Its Image, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. Propaganda in all its forms is the culture of a mass society. The media transmits propaganda to form public opinion and recreate the human being. Reversing the Western ideal of a rational and free individual, the media creates a childish conformist ensconced in the peer group, who acts unconsciously.   [More]  Descriptors: Propaganda, Peer Groups, Municipalities, Mass Media Effects

Blackmore, Tim (2012). Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The article proposes six different tropes or common frames for understanding how the films avoid dealing with problems raised by the wars. Why the films failed, and what functioned as integration propaganda instead, is the subject for a second article titled "Eyeless in America, the Sequel."   [More]  Descriptors: Films, Propaganda, War, Foreign Countries

Naydenova, Natalia (2017). "Let the Little Children Come to Me": (Anti-)Religious Films for Young Spectators of the Soviet and Post-Soviet Period, Children's Literature in Education. The article is a comparative analysis of three films focusing on anti-religious and religious propaganda (targeting both Orthodoxy and sectarianism) and featuring children among the main characters: "The Miracle Worker" (1960), "Armageddon" (1962) and "Serafima's Extraordinary Journey" (2015). The three films feature a similar set of characters and artifacts which serve as the springboard for the unfolding of the individual plots. However, the techniques used in the characters' portrayal are very different in each of the films, leading to contrasting outcomes. This article explores the way the characters are portrayed, including the use of discursive strategies and intertextual mechanisms, with special emphasis given to the propaganda characteristic of the different periods in the country's history. It highlights the reversal of values between Soviet and post-Soviet societies, resulting in a drastic change in the didactic messages conveyed by cinema over these 50+ years.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Films, Propaganda, Religion

Hobbs, Renee (2017). Teaching and Learning in a Post-Truth World, Educational Leadership. Renee Hobbs, director of the Media Education Lab at the Harrington School of Communication and Media at the University of Rhode Island, cautions us to stop using the term "fake news" with students and be more precise about the types of disinformation prevalent in content today, from hoaxes and satire to clickbait. In this article, she focuses on one of the most challenging types of disinformation–propaganda–and how teachers can use resources such as the Mind Over Matter web site to examine and analyze propaganda with their students. She offers examples of the different ways that people can interpret these messages and looks at how students can discover what their intentions are.   [More]  Descriptors: Media Literacy, Propaganda, Social Media, Mass Media Effects

Riesterer, Becky A. (2017). A Qualitative Content Analysis for the Presence of Propaganda in Select Juvenile Whitman Books Published during World War II, ProQuest LLC. Scholars have determined popular literature often contains propaganda imperatives (Berelson, 1952; Budd, 1967; Davis, 1942). Given the persuasive impact children's literature has upon the reader, children's literature containing propagandistic intent is a powerful force (Desai, 2014). This is especially true during times of war. Several studies have analyzed the impact of war-themed literature on children (Collins, 2012; Holsinger, 1995; Schmidt, 2013; Westman, 2009). Qualitative content analysis is an instructive methodology that can be used to identify underlying themes in children's literature and reveal hidden persuasive propaganda (Bekkedal, 1973). This qualitative content analysis study examined the presence of propaganda imperatives in a select group of texts published by Whitman Publishing during World War II. Drawing from the imperatives of three official propaganda agencies and contemporary children's literary agents, an instrument was designed to determine the presence of the defined imperatives in the texts. The texts used for this study were taken from three series of books published by Whitman between 1942 and 1945. The series were the Comic Series, the Fighters for Freedom Series and The Authorized Hollywood Editions. Using an instrument as a measure, the texts were read and coded by a team of coders looking for the presence of the imperatives. This study's findings determined many of the propaganda imperatives did have a presence in the texts examined. The presence of three imperatives was most frequently found in the texts. Home Front Support, Military Recruitment, and Enemy Hatred imperatives were repeatedly found. Home Front Support imperatives encouraged children to watch for spies, keep military secrets and participate in rationing. Military Recruitment imperatives encouraging careers in aviation and female recruitment were found. In addition, there were imperatives stimulating enemy hatred. The Japanese and Germans were the most frequent target. While the imperatives called for racial equality to be stressed in the texts, there was a disturbing absence of any sincere effort to advance the image of American Blacks or Native Americans in the texts. In contrast, the texts contained references supporting the continued subjugation of Blacks. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web page:   [More]  Descriptors: Propaganda, Childrens Literature, Cartoons, War

Gambrill, Eileen (2010). Evidence-Informed Practice: Antidote to Propaganda in the Helping Professions?, Research on Social Work Practice. The most concerning issue affecting the quality of practices and policies in the helping professions is the play of propaganda, which misleads us regarding what is a problem, how (or if) it can be detected, its causes, and how (or if) it can be remedied. Propaganda is defined as encouraging beliefs and actions with the least thought possible. Censorship is integral to propaganda including hiding well-argued alternatives and lack of evidence for claims. Evidence-based practice was developed in part because of misleading claims in the professional literature. If propaganda is an integral part of our society, we cannot escape its influence. But we can become aware of it, encouraged by ethical obligations to avoid harming in the name of helping.   [More]  Descriptors: Propaganda, Ethics, Social Work, Mental Disorders

Setiobudi, Eko (2017). The Effort of Education Management in Conducting Deradicalization of Boarding School (Study in the Village of Tenggulun Subdistrict Solokuro Lamongan East Java Province), Journal of Education and Practice. This study, generally aims to know the background of the rise of radicalism and a portrait of the role, the Education Management reduced the radical movements, especially in the village of Tenggulun Subdistrict Solokuro Lamongan East Java Province. The study used a qualitative approach with grounded theory method. Analysis of data using open coding, data collection technique through interview, observation and document analysis. Sources of data obtained through informants, photos and documents. Results: (1) Poverty and lack of education is one of the factors the rise of radical ideologies in the village of Tenggulun. Factor's impact on the poor community control over the existence of Pesantren Al Islam, which has aqidah different, (2) after the Bali bombings, Pesantren Al Islam to change the orientation of the educational methods, the method of jihad, preaching and tarbiyah, being a method tarbiyah, propaganda and jihad. And then implemented in Management Education at Al Islam, (3) Another change is to change the military jihad becomes moderate jihad which is implemented through propaganda to the people around, the pattern of acculturation, through Muhammadiyah, and is involved in the de-radicalization activities. Recommended more research is increasing socialization of political education, government to embrace more radical schools to get involved in de-radicalization, and needs to be further research on the relationship between Muhammadiyah and pure of Islamic Aqeedah and kaffah).   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Boarding Schools, Terrorism, Educational Administration

Schembs, Katharina (2013). Education through Images: Peronist Visual Propaganda between Innovation and Tradition (Argentina 1946-1955), Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education. The first two Peronist governments (1946-1955) introduced extensive social reforms that notably improved working conditions and systematised vocational training. Thereby the foundations of the Argentine welfare state were laid and the working masses were socially included to an unprecedented degree: thus, they also constituted the majority of Peron's supporters. These reforms were accompanied and buttressed by a purportedly equally innovative set of symbols, in the form of mostly graphic propaganda on leaflets or advertising posters, intended to disseminate political ideas and educate the Argentine population. Apart from economic implications like fostering industrial progress, the centring of the regime around the figure of the worker, which for the first time appeared within the self-representation of the state, also brought about a redefinition of the notion of citizenship. In conceiving of the Peronist visual propaganda as a means of state-driven education of the Argentine population and thereby taking it up in the realm of educationalist research, this article first focuses on the appropriations and reformulations of local discursive and iconographic traditions within the Peronist propaganda, despite the self-proclaimed novelty of the regime and its visual representations. Second, by comparing it to the propagandistic production of other corporatist welfare regimes of the interwar period, it elaborates the national specificity, as well as transnational entanglements in the staging of welfare policies and the visualisation of the redefined relationship between state and citizens.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Propaganda, Visual Aids, Citizenship Education

Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin (2016). The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War, Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education. The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war that swept up teachers and students in schools, as in the rest of the population, in the first few months of the war. However, this emphasis on the war frenzy obscures the fact that schools were not easily transformed into war institutions. Even if schools made a great effort to align themselves with the war effort, they remained independent associations, and soon after 1914, a quotidianisation (akin to routinisation) arose within the schools. To date, source materials that show this lack of influence of wartime propaganda on schools have only been analysed in terms of what they reveal about the deprivations and hardships of schools during the war. However, records from the schools also shed light on the everyday routines that continued during the war, and such evidence calls on scholars to reconsider the conditions in schools in the First World War. This article analyses selected records including school chronicles and exam protocols from the war years and shows that school life was often distinct from war enthusiasm. A more complex view is therefore advocated of the relationship between the First World War and the German school.   [More]  Descriptors: Foreign Countries, War, Educational History, Socialization

Van Gorp, Angelo (2011). The Decroly School in Documentaries (1930s-1950s): Contextualising Propaganda from within, Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education. Propaganda is conspicuous for what it conceals and always cautious about what it reveals. Starting from the assumption that all documentaries on the Decroly School in Uccle (Brussels), the school Ovide Decroly (1871-1932) founded in 1907, are propaganda, this article tackles the question as to how to "read" this particular set of Decrolyan propaganda documentaries. The author will do that on the basis of two documentaries–"Pour la vie, par la vie" (1946-1947) and "Le Jardin d'enfants a l'Ecole Decroly" (1952-1953)–and focus on what he calls a contextualising "from within": a filmic reading as part of a historical reading. What does the "genre" of the propaganda documentary, the way these films are constructed, reveal about the Decroly Method, the Decroly School and the Decrolyans? This implies that one needs to try to unravel the "grammar" or "semiotics" of the films. As a result, this article is starting with a methodological reflection on how to read (propaganda documentary) film, after which the author outlines briefly the production context of the Decroly films. The subsequent sections relate this context to a contextualisation "from within", focusing on the voice-over and the sounds, the framed images and the camera work, particularly related to the way space, children and adults are depicted, and finally the editing work, particularly referring to some striking sequences.   [More]  Descriptors: Propaganda, Documentaries, Films, Educational History

Gambrill, Eileen (2012). The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions, Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of professionals and taking advantage of research findings, in everyday practice we find a variety of avoidable lapses, including decontextualized problem framing, bogus claims concerning risks, accuracy of assessment measures, and effectiveness of interventions. Perhaps most troubling is obscuring the causes of human problems, for example, framing problems-in-living such as anxiety, alienation, and loneliness that result from living in a technological society as brain disorders, so mystifying the causes of distress.   [More]  Descriptors: Propaganda, Ethics, Allied Health Personnel, Psychology

Marks, Melissa J. (2017). Teaching the Holocaust as a Cautionary Tale, Social Studies. Teaching about the Holocaust as an atrocity of the 1940s misleads students into thinking that it is a genocide occurred, that the world agreed "Never Again," and that the United Nations would prevent future genocides. With genocides in Rwanda, Srebrenica, and Syria occurring in the years since the Holocaust, teachers need to use the Holocaust as a vehicle for teaching about and preventing future genocides. Five main points need to be taught to students, all of which can be shown in the Holocaust and other genocides, specifically: (1) the meaning of genocide and problems surrounding its early identification; (2) the idea that governments are not always ethical or moral; (3) the effectiveness of propaganda; (4) dehumanization; and (5) using one's voice to stand up against injustice.   [More]  Descriptors: Death, Jews, Teaching Methods, Human Rights

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